Most of Florida's estuaries have been cauldrons of industrial waste, toxic chemicals and agricultural run-off for over 30 years of documented history. (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
Low elevation, land-source watersheds empty into lakes which feed intracoastal canals and estuary river basins. Florida once had pristine bays and drinking water. Now, "dead zones" are formed in Florida Bay, Tampa Bay, Sarasota Bay and the Indian River Lagoon. A dead zone, in marine lingo, is a body or area of water that can no longer support marine life, due to man-caused, chronic water pollution events. Marine habitat areas for some 200 species of fish, have attenuated to the point that fish populations are in decline. Over fishing by commercial interests is not and has never been the primary cause of the loss of wild fish stocks. Sick fish with multiple pathogenic afflictions caused by water-borne toxins do not spawn. Environmental stress from high nitrogen, chemical contaminants, hypoxia (oxygen starved) and opportunistic microbes are the primary causes of dwindling fish populations in Florida. Toxic destruction of fish habitats means no more fish, until workable, bioremedial activities include cutting off the toxin source streams and replacing the feeder canals. Then, perhaps in a decade, productive habitats will renew.
Chart 1 is a graphic representation of a preliminary fish survey conducted from June 1994 to December 1995. The survey was conducted by the fishing team of Walter and Michael Kandrashoff, the well-published and recognized father and son independent research team from Stuart, Florida. The estuary survey, involved the Indian River Lagoon, which is fed by the St. Lucie River and the Indian River on the Atlantic coast of south central Florida. Many species of fish, caught at random by hook-and-line method and hand-thrown net method, would produce a near average of 50 percent catch rate of fish showing genetic abnormalities and terminal fish afflictions. Such abnormalities are of early stage developmental defects of missing fins, spinal irregularities and scale disorientation (patches of scale reversal patterns on the skin surface). Visible terminal afflictions are bleeding skin lesions and advanced stages of mycotic fin rot and septicemia-like, hemorrhagic bleeding around the eyes. In 2 percent of the sick fish with multiple afflictions are the fish cancers. Papilloma carcinomas, histosarcomas, and brain tumors are common. Postmortem exams reveal liver cancers and intestinal granulosarcomas with general granulomatosis, a malignant gut tissue degenerate disease. This looks very much like human Crohn's disease. Most tissue samples were sent to Dr. John Harshbarger, National Tumor Registry for animal tumors in Washington, DC (6) for pathology analysis and reporting. The dominant species of fish surveyed and most frequently afflicted is the sheepshead. Once in the estuary, they spend most of their time through cyclic periods of spawning and migrate many miles within the estuary in circular patterns. They are bottom feeders and dine on small shrimp and barnacles. A complete water/sediment profile was needed to determine the contributory chemicals responsible for these devastating afflictions in these fish. We had neither the financial resources nor the technical support staff to undertake the needed analysis. (See Supplement 1 with this report for sediment sampling tests.) One develops a keen appreciation for the term water-borne loading of chemical contaminants, bacterium, mycobacterium (fungi), and viruses; how did these fish survive at all? While other people were studying the problem (1), we needed to be studying the solution. Regardless of the exotoxic, outside exposure of natural and man-made conditions and pathogeny, most multiple afflictions in the fish are reversible as we later discovered. Here then, is the focus of our basic research effort:
Does the spontaneous healing of these terminal fish afflictions carry with
spontaneous remission of their cancers? And how can this be publicly
demonstrated with solid, reproducible evidence?
Beyond the toxicosis, the blood abnormalities, the minutia of at least 100 different chemical contaminants, numerous bacterium, and fungi species, some of which I have a hard time pronouncing, and several viruses, there is a fundamental lesson to be learned about the immune system that we have somehow missed in all of our debates, conjectures, protestations and lab courses. How do these little fishes generate these beautiful healing curves (given on Chart 1) in their struggle to survive the toxic encounters of estuaries rimmed by humans and other air breathing creatures? The origin of the Sindermann-Kandrashoff bioremedial intervention procedure and spontaneous healing effects began with this research. The expanded version of this report contains the entire history of its development. There are 6 distinct phases of detoxicosis which these fish, cross-species, go through that are associated with this procedure. The first phase is called the immunorecursive phase. It simply means a rebounding of a suppressed immune system that effects every organ of the fish or systemically. Immunorecursive is the direct opposite of immunosuppressive. Conditions that trigger the first phase are still under debate, but a consensus of opinion seems to be that a rapid change from a high nitrogen/low oxygen ambient water polluted environment to a clean, controlled water environment with a natural balance of oxygen to nitrogen triggers a phagocyte oxydase enzyme response, cross-species, and forms a bound superoxide metabolite (not a superoxide radical). Salinity changes do not appear to play a part is this good metabolite proliferation. It certainly is a hormonal mechanism of the fish immune system, regardless of the extent of a deteriorated condition at the time of capture. This energy-packed superoxide metabolite is a supplemental carrier of oxygen with the red blood cells. This sudden increase in blood oxygen availability rapidly brings the fish out of a general hypoxic, environmentally stressed condition. If the fish liver is not too badly damaged, other enzyme systems go to work to purge the blood of serum toxins, compounded with endogenic teratoxins, partial enzyme-failed serum toxin remnants. The phagocytes go after the microbe infections with a big macromolecular punch. Still not eating after 24 hours of intervention, they begin what can only be described as a relaxed mode, a destressing, quieting mode. Their immune system is waking up and going to war on all impurities present in the blood stream. The slime coats on these sick fish are a tattered mess at the time of capture. This mucosa attenuation caused by the polluted water is what initiates the onslaught of many different inflammations and water-borne microbial attacks both bacterium and mycobacterium. The fish immune system is quickly compromised when these conditions persist. Encysted parasites take up residence on these fish, so at the time of capture, these sick fish have multiple afflictions. Without intervention in this progressive, multiple-disease process, they will die an unnatural death. It's only a question of time in days. The Sindermann-Kandrashoff bioremedial intervention procedure, in most instances, stops the terminal prognosis for these dying fish with this first phase. In some instances, the fish are too sick to bounce back and they die within hours of phase 1 therapy. The intervention procedure is not prefect, but if they make it past phase 1, the open lesions stop bleeding within 24 hours, a primary indicator that the immune system is being activated, immunorecursion is taking place within the fish as well as on the outside of the fish.
Phase 2 is the detox phase. With the immune system rebounding there is a stillness in their behavior. The stress is gone, the eye movements are slow and they are starting to eat the clean food that is provided. Then it begins: Small globulets of fish oil and remnants of the tattered slime coat emanate from the skin surface of the fish, cross-species. Protein casts, dead bacterium, dead parasites, unidentified crud, literally "sweat" from the surface of the fish and float to the surface of the healing tank. Water filters become quickly inundated with all the debris and have to be changed frequently to keep the water clean. Sometimes a chalk-white substance comes off and floats to the top. This substance has not been identified as yet. This detoxification process goes on for another 24 hours. Advanced sick fish are "quarantined" for no less than a week at this phase 2 level, because it was discovered that if fin rot fish are moved too soon from phase 2 and mixed with phase 3 fish, the healing fish can all get reinfected. The intervention procedure fails when reinfected fish die. If the reinfected fish are immediately isolated in clean water, they will rebound for a second time. The virulence factors for some of these infections can be very serious in an experiment like this and the fish should be handled with great care. Not only is the polluted estuary toxic but the estuary is carrying highly contagious infections, which for the time being, seem to be pathogenic only among the various fish species. Signs that the phase 2 fish are healing include lesion scaring, fin rot sites are scaring, hemorrhagic red is gone, parasites are gone, discoloration spots are gone, inflammation sites are quiet and physical activity among the healing fish begins; all within 48 to 72 hours of intervention. To get out of quarantine, each fish is examined. If approval is granted, they graduate to phase 3.
Phase 3 is the new slime coat formation phase. The immune system is continuing to rebound, the appetites are great. They challenge each other for food portions, they are returning to normal. Natural skin colorations and markations are becoming very clear. Another 48 hours with phase 3 and a new brilliant, clean slime coat is in place. Attempts to sample the new mucosa fail. Is the immune chemistry of the old slime coat different from this new slime coat? Those with surface tumors, have now been coated over and color changes are noticed in the neoplasms. The surface lesions are completely healed with no signs of hyperplasia. The once infected fin rot site is no long visible. The replacement tissues are smooth and somatic (non-differentiated). The intervention clock is now at 90 hours and running.
Phase 4 is the anti-cancer phase. If a fish going through the detoxing process has neoplasms and/or suspected leukemia, this is a remarkable phase to witness. This has also been the most difficult to verify. Fish have low blood volume/total body weight ratios. Taking a 15cc blood sample for cytoflow DNA analysis (both white blood cell populations and red blood cell populations are examined) from a one-pound fish suspected with leukemia, will kill the fish. By appearance, we had 6 live fish tested for leukemia with one as control or normal. One of the 6 tested positive for red blood cell leukemia. If it was a false positive, then a severe, equally fatal, blood anemia was present. (7) The object is to keep the fish alive for follow-up blood tests requiring very small test volume. The same thing applies for neoplasms on the exterior surface of the fish, small biopsies only. Live fish are difficult to examine for surface tumors. One does not have much time for detail as suffocation shock potential sets in quickly. New tests have to be invented to address these testing procedure limitations. When suspected cancerous fish go through phase four, most visual symptoms of cancer disappear. For the suspected leukemic fish, the poor skin color and emaciation convert to bright, vibrant natural colors for that given species of fish and no emaciation is present. Of the gross appearance of surface tumors, there is something that takes place which is something other than remission, other than benignancy. I describe it simply as tumor reversal. These tumors revert back to a primitive, hyperphasic state, then further to a very small, scar-like tissue spot. Was this a malignancy or wasn't it? Did I make a mistake in the original observation? Do I have the right fish? Dr. Harshbarger sees only the dead tissues and tumors. These are alive and quickly fading in our recovering phase 4 fish. Whatever it was, the neoplasm is gone and the scar tissue sites remain unchanged. Does this anti-cancer phase also take place inside the fish simultaneously? What about the fish hepatitis, liver lesions, liver cancers and granulomatosis? The rapidly improving health status of fish going through phase four is the only non-intrusive indication we have that the liver survived. It is healing and is functioning well, otherwise the fish would remain in poor health with a dysfunctional liver. These fish have graduated to phase 5. How did they do this?
Phase 5 is the return of spawning instincts. We have no data at this time of the fertilization rates and possible genetic damage that has resulted from their toxicosis ordeal. We can only speculate at this early stage of bioremedial research that the DNA damage is transient if genotoxic agents are purged soon enough and clean DNA repair enzymes are at work. It is a brief assumption based on the rapid "fixing" of tissue damage on the exterior of the fish. Most of the offspring will be normal provided that clean habitat bays, wherever they exist, are their designated new home. Phase 5 fish will never be put back into the crud waters from where they came. It can be easily demonstrated that phase 2 fish, when placed back in crud water quickly reinfect with multiple afflictions sourcing from the estuarine water. They have earned their freedom in the open clean sea. The latent, non-lethal mutagenic defects will dissipate with each generation provided that no more toxicosis events occur for these fish. Fish farms, with controlled water resources, are needed to test a wide range of considerations and possibilities of phase 5 fish. A cohort of universities and laboratories are needed to examine the first generation of baby fish to evolve from parent fish who have traversed the detoxicosis phases of this procedure. Strategic data is needed to qualify and quantify an estimating system of merit for this procedure as to how fast the fish stocks can be replenished. This procedure, upscaled, can certainly stop the decline of cross-species fish populations, but how good is it in promoting the progenesis of new fish populations? For the cancer/remission verification tests, for the first time, the possibility now exists to turn the cancer "on" and turn the cancer "off" by cycling test fish with this bioremedial procedure near the crud water source.
Phase 6. The return of homeostasis. The renewed energy, the vibrant activity, the bright skin colors, a new slick slime coat, the hungry appetites, they are cured, they did it themselves, they are ready for ocean release. Their good health, the natural equilibrium of physiological, and bionomic conditions have been restored. Gone are all the visible symptoms of toxicosis, infection and cancer.
Are there any residual toxic substrates left, like bioaccumulated
methylmercury, methylacadmium and methylthallium in fatty tissues and muscle
components? We don't know at this time We would have to sacrifice these phase
6 fish to find out. The are so close to freedom, I will let them go. I have
that the immune system is so strong now it has learned how to deal with the
residual toxins and to slowly reduce their levels. I know that science isn't
hunches, but discoveries are. A great deal of follow-up and verification work
needed, but in the meantime, we need to start processing these sick fish. What
other great discoveries are waiting for us in the oceans of this world?
Hard Lessons Learned:
1. Appreciate the unique dynamics of the immune system to bounce back from terminal afflictions, when given a chance.
2. Suppressing the immune system with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs is a tragic mistake. Our evidence from this basic research can demonstrate that human cancer research needs to make an about face if more effective, patient-friendly therapies and protocols are to be developed. Suppressing the immune system, by whatever means, invokes hypersensitive allergic responses and unwanted endocrine autoimmune responses.
3. State and Federal authorities can no longer ignore and wish away the chronic degradation of Florida's estuaries. They must now, quickly align themselves to workable bioremedial research projects that produce quick results which will help turn this pestilenting mess around. No more lengthy, redundant, costly studies of the same problem. We have simply run out of time and money for that and the public is finally getting concerned over the growing media accounts of pollution-related events and lack of action. It's reality check time and they know it.
4. It seems absurd to have fish clinics, healing tanks and fish farms in Florida. But it's equally absurd when one tackles the bit of statistics that the USA must now import nearly 70 percent of its fish products on a daily basis from foreign countries. Why? If you don't understand the marine science involved, which this brief report is attempting to present, then understand the economic impact of lost jobs for coastal fishermen in the US. The market is surely there, but sick fish and pollution related loss of stock is a bitter harvest for American fishermen.
Warnings: We are dealing with a lot of unknowns and virulence factors associated with the parasites, bacterium, fungi and viruses discovered on these sick fish. We have a responsibility to make these facts known to state and federal authorities when we know that public health risks are at stake. We have 300 fish samples in frozen storage to support the following warnings: Issued: January 1996.
1. Live sick fish like I have described above are not fit for human consumption. The meat is tainted with chemical toxins which the fish ingested. Children should not be allowed to play with fish caught that have open lesions, bleeding eyes and infected fish body parts.
2. No swimming should be allowed in these contaminated estuaries. If you insist on swimming, make sure that children have no open cuts or scratches. Menstruating females should avoid swimming in these waters. Should circular brown and red patches quickly develop on the arms, legs or torso, don't ignore the itching, consult your family physician immediately. Estuaries that produce sick and deformed fish will most likely have water-borne primary carcinogens as well.
3. Drinking water supplies. Any change in color or odor of a glass of water let to stand at room temperature for 24 hours should be tested for chemical, fungal and mycobacterium contamination.
4. Sick fish are a contaminant in the natural ocean food chain. Larger fish, sea birds, sea turtles and dolphins that dine on these raw, sick fish are at high risk of contracting the same afflictions and toxicosis that are besieging the sick prey fish. Does the food chain become the cancer chain in this pervading, expanding plume of man-caused mutatoxins?
1. If we can get organized and get some help, we can bring back the fish and the wildlife. The tourist economy will come back if we pull together and teach the farmers how to work with the fishermen. There are some interesting experiments outside of Florida that need to be tried to stop Florida's collapsing ecology.
2. Armed with this Sindermann-Kandrashoff bioremedial procedure how does one invoke an equivalent bioremedial response in a sick, toxified mammal? Is there a discovery waiting in the cross-over research from marine biology to human immune medicine to detox humans of environmental toxins similar to the way our little fishes showed us. Can spontaneous remission of cancers in people, pets, farm animals and zoo animals be induced by simple non-chemical methods? Fish are great bioindicators of their water environment. When the water is bad, they let us know. And when the bad water is converted to good, they let us know also with an amazing ability to rebound from terminal afflictions borne by the bad water. This natural phenomena will have far-reaching beneficial implications in human and veterinarian medicines.
3. When you see a sick fish struggle through these 6 phases of detoxicosis and recover to a healthy status from a terminal prognosis, the intervention procedure and care is a success. In the midst of the jubilation of these interesting discoveries, I am humbled by the profound ability of Mother Nature to rebound so beautifully from the catastrophic acts and unthinking, engineerings of mankind. The Sindermann-Kandrashoff bioremedial procedure is 98% reproducible if followed correctly and quarantine management steps are in place. The rate of speed of traversal from immunorecursive phase to release is three weeks minimum. Larger fish require more time. Sea mammals will require two months.
This project was funded by private donations and corporate sponsorship. No federal or state funds were used for this initial phase of research.
There were many mishaps and lost fish samples developing this procedure. It came about as an accidental finding and blossomed into something that will have far reaching inventions. The people of Stuart and all of Florida should be very thankful of the hard work and dedication that Walter, Michael and mom, Stella Kandrashoff put into this project. Here is a family for all to admire and take lessons from. As a land person from Missouri, I have learned a great respect for life in the sea as a result of my association with this Florida family.
Dr. Carl Sindermann is near retirement as a senior scientist with NOAA and a prolific writer of marine science topics. He has remained behind the scenes and was not associated with this project while we verified, with a lot of documentation, that his theory was right on target: Sick fish can heal themselves, if given the chance. It is to Dr. Sindermann and the Kandrashoff family that I named and dedicated this procedure to in its entirety. There are no finer people alive, dedicated so passionately to bioremedial marine restoration topics, that I could have named these 6 known phases of fish healing after and feel so fortunate to do so.
I would also like to thank the board members of the Martin County Historical Society of Stuart for help they gave us with the use of larger tank facilities at the House of Refuge, located on Hutchinson Island. The pilot research and the development of the Sindermann-Kandrashoff bioremedial marine intervention procedure would not have been possible without their kind assistance.
We have just begun to research. This pilot study, the first of its kind to help bring back the fish populations in Florida, needs to be expanded with larger facilities and more in-state participation with marine pathology and marine biology people.
The cross-over research will be directed by medically qualified immunologists and epidemiology people. We will start small and grow to include multi-state participation. We have to invent our way out of this mess with some new thinking and activities.
Research partners, sponsors and individuals are being sought to help finance a unique undertaking in the State of Florida to demonstrate bioremedial restoration of the ecology. The technology is in-hand, now. We need funds, the right people and the leadership to put a multi-year program of solution-orientated tasks together. We begin with fish surveys and healing tank networks, then the formation of habitat bay farms and fisherman range keepers. Grants to farmers, cattle ranchers and fishermen will be given for innovative methods to stop the flow of organonutrients from reaching the coastal waterways and make the Sindermann-Kandrashoff procedure more effective. And we just might be in for a big surprise by the cross-over research spin-offs directed precisely at cancer/positive immune system modalities in people, pets and plants. It's a big task and our grandchildren are all for it....and eager to help!
Mr. Thom Day, Projects Director
PO Box 2184
Stuart, Florida 34995 USA Mobile Telephone: (573) 690-4411
Fax: (573) 634-4870
©Copyright 1996, 1997 Day Cancer Research Foundation, Inc., Stuart, Florida. Permission is hereby granted to make copies, by whatever means, of this document by the reader for educational purposes only.
(1) "The Effect of Historical Contaminants in Biota in Biscayne Bay, Florida" by Michael C. Schmale, Ph.D., Division of Marine Biology and Fisheries, Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Cswy., Miami, FL 33149 June 13, 1994
(2) "Federal Objectives for the South Florida Restoration" Nov. 15, 1993. Numerous state and federal agencies participated.
(3) "Quantitative Effects of Pollution on Marine and Anadromous Fish Populations" USDC-NOAA Dr. Carl Sindermann June 1994
(4) "Interaction of Pollutants and Disease in Marine Fish and Shellfish" Chapter 16 Pathobiology of Marine and Estuarine Organisms by Dr. Carl Sindermann. 1993
(5) "Environmental Biology of Fishes" Biscayne Bay Florida Study by Dr. Joan Browder (NOAA), Walter Kandrashoff, Michael Kandrashoff, et al. 1993.
(6) Dr. John Harshbarger, Ph.D., Director - National Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals, George Washington University Medical Center, Department of Pathology - Ross Hall, Room 520, Washington, DC 20037 (202) 994-1056 Fax: (202) 994-2618.
(7) "Flow Cytometric Analysis of Blood Cell Populations in Fish from the Indian River Lagoon" April, 1995: Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, Dr. Ross Longely, Ph.D. (Contract testing paid for by the Day Cancer Research Foundation of Stuart, Florida)
REPORTS AVAILABLE AT DAY CANCER RESEARCH FOUNDATION, INC.:
"Bioremedial Experiments in Human Terminal Affliction Remission Based on Marine Science Trials and Successes" A design phase of cross-over research by Thom Day.
Profiles of human Cancers: Breast cancer, leukemia and lung cancer.
Cancer Help Resources List (A monthly publication)
Chemical Analysis of Sediment Samples
by Thom Day
(This supplement text belongs with the report entitled, "Teratoxic
Fish Cancers and Documented Events of Systemic Spontaneous Remission")
In a final report entitled, "St. Lucie Estuary Muck Removal Demonstration Project" prepared for the South Florida Water Management District by Taylor Engineering, Inc. of Jacksonville, Florida, January 1994 chemical analysis of 6 sediment samples were made public. The St. Lucie river/canal system is a major tributary of the Indian River Lagoon. The sediment samples in the North Fork region contained trace amounts of 35 different synthetic chemicals and 8 naturally occurring decay products of plant matter.
Pesticides of Chlordane, Toxaphene, Aroclor, Kepone tested above trace levels. Metals of Copper, Zinc, Lead and Aluminum also tested above trace levels. (1) The sediment sampling procedure was provided in August of 1992 for a proposed muck removal project. Our fish survey of abnormalities were in the same general area from June 1995 to December 1995.
Fin fish derive their cancers 100% from their water environment. What low level combinations of synthetic compounds work synergistically to produce the cancers and immunotoxic afflictions in these fish, cross-species, is not known at this time. What is certain is that when the sick fish are removed from this contaminated estuary via the Sindermann-Kandrashoff marine intervention procedure there is a better than 95% seroconverion of multiple afflictions and the fish heal themselves of all symptoms of ecotoxicosis and mycotic infections.
Many synergistic combinent scenarios are possible when such a wide mix of organophosphates and organohalides come in contact with waterborne petroleum agents and heavy metals in the Indian River Lagoon. Sunlight, water temperature, salinity and weather conditions also contribute to the teratogenic brew variations. Both low level primary and intermediate resulting xenobiotics and toxic metabolites can disrupt the autonomal neuroendocrine immune system of marine creatures, causing developmental defects, mucosal attenuation and multiple affliction complexes of myelotoxicosis, neurotoxicosis and genotoxicosis; all within the same fish struggling to stay alive. Contamination of the marine food chain occurs without hindrance as multiple marine illnesses including cancers of many forms are showing up in sea birds, turtles, dolphins and sharks.
The overnitrogen-carbon contamination continues unabated and as time moves on, many future studies of new strains of bacterium, mycobacterium and viruses will have their origins in the contaminated estuaries of all coastal states. Of particular interest in these new studies are nitrogen radicals containing heavy nitrogen, 15N, which can make for mutatoxic metabolites thought to mutate intracellular enzymes which in turn cause aberrant cell mitosis events with DNA and RNA proliferating errors. The Internet is providing an avalanche of data and technical reports to evaluate and verify other locations with sick fish, birds and more recently, frogs. (2)
Notable Quotations by Marine Scientists and Others
"Mud within the central portion of the North Fork contains an exceptional
concentration of organic material that can degrade water quality and produce an
undesirable benthic environment. Organics are being introduced to the North Fork
faster than the rate of assimilation (from land sources)."
"Sediment concentrations of copper, chlordane and PCB's in Manatee Pocket and copper and DDT in C-24 (canal 24) pose a potential environmental problem."
Technical Publication 88-10, July 1988 South Florida Water Management District, "Sediment Characteristics and Toxic Substances in the St. Lucie Estuary, Florida" by Dr. Daniel E. Haunert of the Environmental Science Division. Page 23.
"When metal levels are elevated, the degree of contamination exceeds natural levels by a factor of five to ten times. an exception of the above trend occurs at site B where concentrations of mercury in the sediments were as high as 17ppm, at least 200 times greater than natural levels."
Department of Oceanography, Ocean Engineering and Environmental Sciences - Florida Institute of Technology, Melhorne, FL 32901 Drs. John Trefry, Nai-Chi Chen, Robert P. Trocine and Simone Metz. Report: "Impingement of Organic-rich, contaminated sediments on Manatee Pocket, Florida" (Indian River Lagoon area) "Florida Scientist" v55 pg170.
"Our data provide the first direct cause-and-effect link between a specific environmental stressor and a naturally occurring infectious disease in a fishery populations."
"One of the most common pollutants in estuaries that are affected by the toxic dionflagellate's blooms are nutrients from agriculture and municipal sources."
"Severe osmotic damage, possibly combined with systemic immunosuppression, may explain the deep, penetrating microbial infections in many recovering fish."
"The dolphins, Atlantic bottlenose, had blisters caused by swelling and vacuolation of the epidermal epithelium."
Marine Pollution Bulletin, Feb. 1996, Vol 32 #2 Pages 221 to 223. By: Dr. Edward J. Noga, DVM (and others) Professor of Aquatic Medicine North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina
"The prevalence of gross abnormalities was about three times higher for demersol fish than for pelagic fish and was about eight times more prevalent at sites with high sediment contaminant concentrations."
American Fisheries Society, Vol 125 1996 pg581. "Prevalence of Gross Pathological Abnormalities in Estuarian Fishes" By: Drs. John Fournic and Kevin Summers EPA - National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology Division, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561. Survey contractor: Versar, Inc. Dr. Stephen B. Weisberg, 920 Ramsey Road, Columbia, Maryland 21045. Fish survey size: 24,291 fish representing 143 species. From 120 random estuary sites in Virginia in 1990 and 220 random estuary sites in Louisiana in 1991 and 1992. 15 types of gross abnormalities and multiple afflictions were noted including fish cancers.
Concluding Remarks for Supplement 1
Once past the quarantine control problems of healing curve phases 1, 2 and 3, with the development of the Sindermann-Kandrashoff bioremedial marine intervention procedure, it was easy to turn the aberrancy switch "on" and then turn it "off" by cycling live fish from estuary water to clean water in repeated venues. What possible combinations of fertilizers, pesticides, heavy metals and petrol exhaust products produce killer waters of these once, pristine estuaries of Florida? Is it Chlordane plus phosphorous plus diesel fuel plus cadmium or is it Aroclor plus cooper plus naphalene with sunlight that decimates the marine ecology and contaminating the food/water web? When the synergistic equations are all completed and the new mutagens and enzymoids are named and the press conferences are over, it will be difficult to find solace in the reality of discovery that we did this to ourselves and our children. Indifference to problems in nature is slowly turning an educated citizenry to be more concerned and wanting to learn more. Now, if we can get the politics out of the sciences, we still have a chance of work our way out of this brewing ecological mess.
(1) "St. Lucie Estuary Muck Removal Demonstration Project. Final Report"
January, 1994 Appendix C Chemical Analysis results.
(2) The Amphibian Monitoring Network - A worldwide surveillance of deformed frogs open to all scientists and concerned citizens. Internet web site address: http://www.im.nbs.gov
FAX: (573) 634-4870
© 1997 Day Cancer Research Foundation, Inc. Stuart, Florida USA
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